Materials - Upper, Liner
The most often used natural material, with ideal properties for shoe production. The following types are used: cow hide, pigskin, goatskin, horse leather, calf leather, reptile leather. Leather is breathable, soft, absorptive, and adapts to individual feet shape well. Leather types:
Smooth leather - textured surface with small pores, matt or shiny.
Patent/enamelled leather - smooth and high-gloss surface, obtained by applying a layer of enamel to the leather. The surface is susceptible to mechanical damage, chemical corrosives, moisture and frost.
Nubuck - leather sanded on the hair side. Buff nubuck - a special category - is very fine nubuck, on which even fine contact with fingers or other objects leaves traces, which can be brushed out.
Suede - leather sanded on the flesh side, less durable than nubuck, with hair on the surface.
Sole leather - Type of cow leather used to make soles. Very sensitive to moisture and uneven surface.
Coated leather - leather coated with a thin layer of other material, such as polyurethane. This ensures durability and easier maintenance, used especially on sports shoes.
No shoe material better than natural leather.
Leather can be stretched and shaped to fit. At the same time, it retains its shape, breathability and other characteristic properties.
Bata is one of the world's largest sellers of leather shoes and knows everything about leather, the company has been producing leather shoes for more than 110 years!
Bata carefully selects the best leather and continuously tests its quality. Its leather products bear the seal of BATA WORLD QUALITY LEATHER.
- Synthetics - PVC, PU, rubber, plastic, artificial leather, poromerics - appearance of these materials is often reminiscent of leather, but their properties (breathability, absorption, adaptability) are inferior to those of natural leather. Usually combined with breathable liners made of modern PVC and PU. New possibilities in colours and shapes inspire new product ranges, especially in youth fashion. Apart from the above advantages, these materials are also cheap.
- Textiles - woven, unwoven - used for light, often summer, or indoor shoes. The latest textile-based material is stretch, providing enough wearing comfort. Textiles are breathable, easy to maintain and have sufficient durability.
- Poromerics - Synthetic leather, whose appearance and properties are similar to those of natural leather. Very simple maintenance.
- Rubber - Similar properties to plastic materials, used for special protective and work shoes.
- Combined materials - Used especially in sports shoes.
- Watertight membrane - Special material ensuring water-tightness and breathability (GORE-TEX etc.). Used mostly in sports and trekking shoes.
The outsoles are the bottom parts of every shoe, coming into contact with the ground. They protect the foot against cold, warmth, uneven surface, sharp objects, etc. Types of outsoles:
- Leather outsole - Darkens when exposed to sunlight. Used on dance/indoor shoes. Repairs necessary when used daily/for long time. Often combined with rubber coatings.
- Rubber outsole - Flexible, weather-resistant, easy to maintain. The lightest type - Styropor - for indoor shoes.
- Synthetic outsole - Flexible, easy to maintain, medium durability, slippery
The method used to connect the upper and the sole influences a shoe's functionality and maintenance.
- Glued shoes - The most common technology, the sole is glued to the upper. The glued seam may fail if exposed to moisture, sweat, or may mechanically separate.
- Flexible shoes - Very comfortable, lightweight and flexible shoes, with attractive sewn-through edges. Flexible thanks to the upper being sewn directly to the sole without an insole. Limited water-tightness. Used mostly on indoor/dry environment shoes.
- Moulded shoes - The sole is pressed, injected, or moulded to the upper. Used mostly on sports and leisure shoes. The quality of the joint and the sole itself depends on the material used.
- Welted shoes - The upper/sole joint is sewn through a welt. Durable and strong joint.